Summary of the Amerind History
Pre Colonial Period:
The early beginning of the indigenous people of America dates back to roughly around 12,000 years ago. This started with mass migration of humans from Eurasia to the American continent travelling vast distances. It happened with the use of a land bridge, now called the Bering Strait, that had connected the two continents. This is a major factor in pin pointing when the first migration took place because of the specific dates of the creation of the land bridge. Scientists say that this bridge was created around 60,000 - 25,000 years ago due to falling sea levels as a result of an intensive glacial period. As the glacial period was 60,00 years ago, the creation of this land bridge cannot not be any older than that and ultimately meaning a passage to migrate from Siberia to Alaska on foot has to scientifically be in that time frame. Earlier migration periods to this continent remain undetermined.
According to linguistic and genetic research, three major migrations took place. The first group to arrive were the Paleo-Americans. They are the earliest known people to have entered and in turn inhabit the American continent. they followed herds of large herbivores deep into Alaska as small hunter-gatherer groups. They eventually crossed the land and headed down South and spread out into the vast lands and diversified into many of hundreds of culturally distinct nations and tribes. Many indigenous oral histories claim that the Paleo-Americans were living there since their genesis and told many creation stories about it.
The next big influential group of migration was the Na-Dene speaking people. They started to enter America around 8000 BC and finished migrating along the Pacific Coast around 5000 BC. The Na-Dene spread across to many places in America, including Alaska and Northern Canada. This group of people are the earliest ancestors to the likes of the Navajo and famous Apache people. During this mass migration of America, small groups conflicted with others and warfare drove many tribes and villages to head west to the Mississippi River.
After the expedition into the exploration of the new world, led by the Italian Christopher Columbus in the 14th century, Europeans became increasingly aware of this new continent. So in the 16th century England, France, Spain and Holland launched major colonisation programmes in the east of North America. Other expeditions to the Americas like the 1513 one led by the Spanish Juan Ponce de Leon insited upon "saving the barbaric, pagan world by spreading Christian Civilisation", often forcibly.
The early colonial attempts often disappeared, notably like the Lost Colony of Roanoke who in 1585 lost contact during the Anglo-Spanish War. The death rate was extremely high when the first settlers tried to colonise, however, successful attempts soon became established as waves of attempts flooded in just as quickly as an old one failed. Due to the various European countries settling in the continent this brought many diverse social, political, economic and religious styles into America. Amazingly enough this didn't cause any major violence against the inflicting views but occasionally one colony took control of another as a result of wars between their European parents.
The major violence was between Britain and France, with France eventually being defeated after many conflicts in 1760. The result of this awarded Britain to seize control over all of France's colonies. After the eventual colonisation of America, the land had been organised into four main distinct regions; New England, The Middle Colonies, The Chesapatre Bay Colonies and the Lower South.
However, this radical and extremely forced change of the Native Americans homeland did not go unnoticed and various wars against The White settlers were enraged upon the colonies, some earned them famous victories throughout the centuries like the Battle of Little Bighorn in 1876.
It wasn't just the political change that affected the Natives but also the social change. The influx of settlers in the 1600's had a catastrophic effect on the balance of the population. The emergence of new diseases from Eurasia wiped out villages at a time and drove the population figures down as the Natives struggled to adapt and to immunise to the new diseases that had never encountered before.
Other impacts that cut the number of Native Americans were War,
With increasing casualties many tribes who were once enemies joined forces to banish the White Man from their lands and rid it of all the evil that plagued it. Some tribes agreed to the terms of the colonists in exchange for weapons, security and money. they were pitted against the non compliant tribes to help the colonists defeat them.
As the influence of the colonists grew stronger and stronger, tribes were pushed back to the outskirts or allowed to stay in special reserves set up by the newly founded United States Government. The Natives were slowly fighting a losing battle with the indigenous people eventually snuffed out by the 20th Century.